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High numbers of participation, high favorability of Vizcarra and 3 of 4 reforms were approved
On December 9, Peruvians held a historic vote to participate in the referendum on reform of the Constitution of Peru in 2018. There, 17,422,414 Peruvians voted for the 4 questions asked, which translates to 72% of the eligible voters , as reported by the official results of the National Office of Electoral Processes.
Leer en español: Perú: lo que dejó el referéndum 2018
Both the participation and the event were historical, because it was the first time that a reform was presented through the plebiscite. For the president of Peru, Martín Vizcarra, the realization of the referendum was also something transcendental. From the beginning of his electoral campaign, he emerged as a candidate seeking to fight against corruption.
This was an opportunity that he could not miss. Added to the above, Peruvians came to the polls "with one of the highest disapproval indices of the political class and its unicameral parliament dominated by the party of Keiko Fujimori, the leader of the opposition that has been imprisoned since November," points out El universal.
However, it was worth taking the risk. Not only the Peruvians went out to vote and supported 3 of the 4 questions asked, but now Vizcarro finishes the year with a high approval number. According to the Ipsos survey firm, Vizcarra ends the year with 66% favorability among Peruvians, being three consecutive months in which the president exceeds the figure of 60%.
In the poll, conducted after the vote, 33% of the people surveyed said they had gone to the polls to express support for President Vizcarra. While 25% had done so to express the rejection of the congressmen.
Thus, the elections served to give a boost to the president who has been in power since March. Without a doubt, they served to make important changes. But, what are they about? In LatinAmerican Post, we explain them
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Since July 2018, Vizcarra proposed the reform with four constitutional changes aimed at eradicating corruption in Peru. After formally passing the bills, it was not until October 4 that all were approved, despite the insistence of the opposition (led by Keiko Fujimori) not to carry out a reform, as reported by América TV.
Do you approve the constitutional reform on the conformation and functions of the National Board of Justice (formerly the National Council of the Magistracy)?
The National Council of the Magistracy was the institution in charge of appointing judges or prosecutors and was responsible for dismissing them. However, with the creation of the National Board of Justice, the aforementioned entity would be replaced, and the new one would register and publish sanctions, and relations of judges and prosecutors. In addition, the requirements for the entity would be stricter.
The above was approved with the 86% of the votes. With this, the creation of this regulatory entity will have to be as soon as possible. For the constitutional lawyer, Alejandro Rospigliosi and in dialogue with Exitosa Noticia, "We can not spend New Year and Christmas without legislation (...) The people ordered the creation of the National Board of Justice, this December should be legislated this matter".
Do you approve the constitutional reform that regulates the financing of political organizations?
In this question, the new points that were approved were those of verifying and controlling the origin of the new economic resources of the political organizations. Like any type of economic income of political organizations.
Likewise, with the approval of this point (it had a vote of 85%) the political organizations have the obligation to publish all expenses that are made and all the money they have left. This point is important after the scandals of Fujimorism and Odebrecht, which led to the resignation of Kuczynski.
Do you approve the constitutional reform that prohibits the immediate re-election of parliamentarians of the Republic?
In the Constitution of 93, and more specifically in Article 90, it is stated that:
"The number of congressmen is one hundred and thirty. The Congress of the Republic is elected for a period of five years through an electoral process organized according to law. Candidates for the Presidency of the Republic can not integrate the lists of candidates for the Congress. Candidates for vice presidents can simultaneously be candidates for representation in Congress. To be elected a congressman, you must be a Peruvian by birth, have completed twenty-five years and enjoy the right to vote.
However, it says absolutely nothing about the re-election periods of each parliament or Congress official. Therefore, since the 1993 constitution, the same person could be re-elected. Things will change by 2021, as the question reviewed 85% support.
Do you approve the constitutional reform that establishes the bicameralism in the Congress of the Republic?
Probably, as one of the most confusing questions, it was denied with 90% of the votes. Peru is a democratic State that only has a House of Representatives. If Congress had been approved, it would be necessary to have a Chamber of Deputies and another House of Senators. Which, when processing a law, has to go through the review and approval of the other Chamber.
LatinAmerican Post | Laura Viviana Guevara Muñoz
Translated from "Perú: Lo que dejó el referéndum 2018"