No more fragility for the female gender of the new generations in the post-pandemic.
The Woman Post | María Carolina Rivero
Listen to this article
Indigenous women live every day various processes of social inequality concerning the rest of the population. Experts indicate that the figures for poverty and extreme poverty are alarming. 43% of indigenous people and 25% of Afro-descendants do not have the economic resources to close all the existing gaps.
An article published in Magazine Nóesis by Rebelín Echeverría reveals that rural indigenous women domestic workers live in cities with severe social exclusion. The study considered three social branches, such as cultural exclusion, economic exclusion, and exclusion in terms of rights. The data collected indicate that 12 rural indigenous women employed and domestic workers participated, in which there was a cumulative disadvantage in society.
1. Educational Inequality
Historically, indigenous populations have been alienated from society, being educated by their ideological traditions and customs. Their educational criteria towards the young were very rigorous and they prepared them for sacrifices. However, these civilizations have had their resources taken away, exploited, and have had a dominant inequality.
In recent decades, school gaps between indigenous and non-indigenous people have narrowed. However, a study published on the official website of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) by Monserrat Bustelo reveals that today there are still high levels of poverty and great intergenerational persistence. The data collected indicate that 60% of Afro-descendants and 72% of indigenous people have education, but only up to secondary school.
2. Inequality in Health Services
The use of prenatal and postnatal health services in indigenous women is relatively low. The findings show that 54% of urban indigenous women have had institutional births and only 37% of rural indigenous women. In addition, they make only 3.5 controls for the lack of money for transfer and sustenance, however, the law refers to 7 controls.
These actions cause morbidity and mortality indicators to skyrocket for the national average. The average infant mortality rate is 2 times higher and the maternal mortality rate is between 3 and 7 times, depending on indigenous women.
Also read: REAL CHANGES TOWARDS WOMEN THROUGH DEMOCRACY
3. Inequality in Financial Services
Currently, productive credits and credits for micro-entrepreneurs are increasingly difficult to obtain for indigenous or Afro-descendant women. These banking services are constantly denied to 21 percent indigenous women and 37 percent to Women of African descent.
4. Employment Inequality
50% of indigenous women and 37% of Afro-descendant women usually work in domestic services, informal sales, and car washing. Only 16% of indigenous women have access to managerial positions or high-ranking positions.
5. Food Inequality
Nutrition is paramount in the first years of life. However, studies affirm that 19% of children less than 5 years of age are severely malnourished and the rate of urban indigenous women exceeds 62%. A more critical scenario is shown by indigenous women and children living in rural areas, as this average decreases to 47%.
6. Technological and Digital Inequality
Digitalization and technology became valuable work tools for women, during this COVID-19 health crisis. However, for the indigenous or Afro-descendant female gender, they are the segment with the most vulnerability. According to an article published in the Ibero-American Journal of Science, Technology and Society (CTS) by Diego Soto reveals that they do not have the education and resources necessary to have the positive effect.
In short, the COVID-19 health crisis deepened the existing gaps. The pandemic mark should prioritize efforts and focus interventions on vulnerable groups. The intention must be to close the gaps definitively of these great indigenous women.